Red foxes are members of the dog family Canidae, and their
general appearance is similar to dogs, wolves, and coyotes.
The European red fox is the same species as the American red
fox. The red fox measures 22 to 32 inches (56–82 cm) in head
and body length, and the tail is 14 inches to 16 inches (35–43
cm) long. The adult fox weigh from six to 15 pounds (2.7–6.8
kg), but it appears heavier than it actually is. The males, or
“dogs,” are usually heavier than the females, or “vixens.”
The red fox is usually recognized by its reddish coat, its
white-tipped tail, and black “stockings,” although the species
does have many color variations. The outside of the ears may
be black-tipped, while the inside is usually white. The white
tip on the tail will distinguish this fox from other species,
regardless of its color phase. Red is the most common color,
but the hair may be from light yellowish to deep auburn red.
Several color phases can occur in one litter. Red foxes
displaying a distinct color pattern are referred by the name
of that phase (i.e., red, cross, silver, black). The cross
fox, for example, has a black/brown cross on the back and
shoulders. The silver and black phases are similar. However,
the black does not have the silver-tipped guard hairs
characteristic of the silver fox. The occurrence of
black-silver phase appears to increase toward the north and
the northwest of Alaska. However, even where most abundant, it
comprises less than two percent of the population.
Driven by their reproductive urge, males become less and
less tolerant of each other throughout March and April. In
early spring, males stake claims to parcels of ground that
they defend in good weather, but spring snowstorms will
send these males back into flocks. By late April or early
May, males establish permanent territories that they
defend in fair weather or foul. Hens arrive on the
breeding grounds a bit later than males and then select
their mates and nesting areas (often the same ones used
the previous year). Males usually remain monogamous within
a breeding season. By late May the first eggs are laid
under a shrub at the edge of an opening. The males stay on
their territories throughout June, although the intense
strutting, tailfanning and aerial chasing typical of the
courtship period wanes after the hens begin to incubate
their clutch for about three weeks, which averages between
six to ten eggs. Most Alaskan ptarmigan chicks hatch in
late June and early July.
Unlike other North American grouse or ptarmigan, male
willow ptarmigan usually help to care for their chicks.
Sometimes, in fact, males will take over all family
responsibilities if the hen is killed. Both adult willow
ptarmigan are vigorous in their defense of the brood. One
of the thrills in store for the Alaskan traveler is the
chance to watch the excited actions of a female ptarmigan
as she tries to distract attention from her chicks by
simulating injury or to duck the flailing wings of the male as he dives at the two-legged intruder, cackling
gutturally as he flies.
A polar bear’s stomach can hold 150 lbs. (68 kg) of meat.
Panda bears have an extra “thumb” (which is actually an
extra-large wrist bone) just for holding onto bamboo stalks. A
panda bear can eat over 45 lbs. (20.4 kg) of bamboo per day.
The giant panda has a large head for its body. Scientists
believe this is because it needs a strong jaw and neck muscles
to eat bamboo, which makes up 99% of its diet. The remaining 1%
consists of insects on the bamboo and dead meat that the panda
Sloth bears’ favorite food is termites. These bears have no
front teeth, so they easily suck out insects from their nests
like a vacuum cleaner. They can also seal their nostrils for
Bears have been known to eat almost anything, including
snowmobile seats, engine oil, and rubber boots.
Lumber companies felt they had no choice but to kill the black
bears in Washington State that were eating the bark from trees.
However, once someone thought to put piles of food in the
forest, the bears stopped eating the trees, and were happy to
eat the free food. Because feeding the bears cost less than
killing them, the lumber companies were happy, too.
About 98% of the grizzly bear population in the U.S. lives in
A polar bear can swim up to 100 miles without resting.
Bears can see almost as well as humans, and they can hear a
little better. But they can smell much better. In fact, a bear’s
sense of smell is around 100 times greater than a human’s. Polar
bears can track down an odor from 20 miles (32 km) away. They
can smell a dead seal under 3 feet of solid ice.
In 2004, a black bear was found unconscious in a campground in
Seattle, Washington. It had broken into a cooler and used its
claws and teeth to open dozens of beer cans. Although it sampled
other types of beer, it chose to drink all the cans of only one
type of beer. After its drinking binge, the bear passed out.
Sea otters are very good swimmers. They can spend their
whole lives in the water though they may occasionally haul
out on land to rest. However, they are very clumsy on land
and won’t venture more than a few yards away from water.
Sea otters are very social animals. They sometimes
travel in groups and may gather together to rest.
Concentrations of over 1,000 animals have been seen
floating together in a single area.
Breeding males are territorial and defend areas where
females are concentrated. They will drive other males out
of their territory. Nonbreeding males may form their own
groups in an area just outside the breeding territory.
Sea otters do not undergo long distance migrations. They
generally remain in a home range that may be a few square
km up to 40 km2.
Of the 20 highest peaks in the United States, 17 are in Alaska.
Mt. McKinley, the highest peak in North America, is 20,320 ft.
above sea level. Denali, the Indian name for the peak, means "The
The Yukon River, almost 2,000 miles long, is the third longest
river in the U.S. There are more than 3,000 rivers in Alaska and
over 3 million lakes. The largest, Lake Iliamna, encompasses over
1,000 square miles.
Alaska has an estimated 100,000 glaciers, ranging from tiny
cirque glaciers to huge valley glaciers. There are more active
glaciers and ice fields in Alaska than in the rest of the
inhabited world. The largest glacier is the Malaspina at 850
square miles. Five percent of the state, or 29,000 square miles,
is covered by glaciers.
Alaska boasts the northernmost (Point Barrow), the easternmost
(Pochnoi Point on Semisopochnoi Island in the Aleutians), and the
westernmost (Amatignak Island in the Aleutians) points in the
Alaska has 6,640 miles of coastline and, including islands, has
33,904 miles of shoreline.
There are more than 70 potentially active volcanoes in Alaska.
Several have erupted in recent times. The most violent volcanic
eruption of the century took place in 1912 when Novarupta Volcano
erupted, creating the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes which is now
part of Katmai National Park.
Ermine have a typical weasel form with long body, short
legs, long neck supporting a triangular head, slightly
protruding round ears, and long whiskers. Their pelage is
reddish-brown above and creamy white below in summer, and
changes to completely white in winter with the tip of the tail
remaining black in all seasons. Males are generally 25% to 50%
larger than females however, the sexes of ermine on Haida
Gwaii (M. e. haidarum) are more similar in size.
Ermine resemble the long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)
in general appearance and coloration, but is smaller, has a
shorter tail, and has white fur on the inner side of the hind
legs. Least weasels (Mustela nivalis) are also
similar in appearance to M. erminea, but are smaller and do
not have any black on the tail.
Pink salmon are the smallest of the Pacific salmon found in
North America weighing on average between 3.5 and 5 pounds,
with an average length of 20-25 inches. As with all members of
the salmon family, pink salmon are coldwater fish. They are
also the most numerous Pacific salmon and have been harvested
and canned commercially in Alaska since the late 1800’s. Young
pink salmon are completely silver without any dark vertical
bars or spots. In the ocean, adults are bright greenish-blue
on top and silvery on its sides. They have very small scales
and pink flesh. As adults get closer to returning to fresh
water, they develop a lot of large black spots on their back
and all over their tail. When pinks approach their spawning
streams, males turn brown to black on their back with a bright
white belly. Females have a bright white belly but turn an
olive green with dusky bars or patches that can be lavender or
a dark gold. By the time males enter the stream where they
will spawn, they have developed a very large hump, and hooked
jaws called a kype.
BBC film crew stayed with us, and filmed exclusively at Hallo Bay. All brown bears and end image are Hallo Bay Legends
Discovery Life's HUNTERS and HUNTED Video:
BBC film crew stayed with us, and filmed exclusively at Hallo Bay. All brown bears are Hallo Bay Legends
"We will strive to protect and preserve this beautiful and wildlife rich wilderness area we are entrusted with. Thus armed with the tools of education and knowledge we will venture into the realm of the Great Bear, what was and what must continue to be surely, one of the last great cornerstones of this planet."
Sharing a vision, we have designed and created an exclusive wilderness
camp that has come to be described as one of the top three wildlife
destinations in the world - and a model educational platform as to how man can
coexist with limited impact on wildlife and its habitat.
No crowds or neighbors found here, real home style cooking and comfortable heated cabins. We are located in the largest natural concentration of brown (grizzly) bears in Alaska, and rated by the BBC Natural History Unit as one of the top 3 destinations in the world to observe wildlife in a natural setting. We offer between 2 and 7 night stays at our remote property. Tours include meals, lodging, and naturalist guides. Short on time? Take a day trip to see the bears from Homer. We have 26 years of bear viewing/guiding experience. Visit Us: MAY 15 to October 15 Guests Comments
ALASKA: a fascinating journey of wilderness and wildlife - truly a last frontier and home to the Legends of Hallo Bay. •Alaska State Symbols
•Alaska Historical Society
•Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
•WildlifeSpecies by ADF&G